Common Vulnerability Scoring System v3.1: Examples

Also available in PDF format (532KiB).

Below are useful references to additional CVSS v3.1 documents.

Resource Location
Specification Document Includes metric descriptions, formulas, and vector string. Available at https://www.first.org/cvss/specification-document.
User guide Includes further discussion of CVSS v3.1, a scoring rubric, and a glossary. Available at https://www.first.org/cvss/user-guide.
Examples document Includes examples of CVSS v3.1 scoring in practice. Available at https://www.first.org/cvss/examples.
CVSS v3.1 calculator Reference implementation of the CVSS v3.1 equations available at https://www.first.org/cvss/calculator/3.1.
XML schema Schema definition available at http://www.first.org/cvss/cvss-v3.1.xsd.
CVSS v3.1 main page Main page for all other CVSS resources: https://www.first.org/cvss.

2. Introduction

This document demonstrates how to apply the CVSS version 3.1 standard to score specific vulnerabilities. A summary of each vulnerability is provided, along with the attack being scored. CVSS version 2.0 scores are provided to show scoring differences between the two standards. Cases where the CVSS version 3.1 metric values differ from their CVSS version 3.0 counterparts are also discussed.

Details of the vulnerabilities and attacks were sourced primarily from the National Vulnerability Database (NVD) at https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln. Information from additional sources was also used when more details were required.

Important Note: The scoring models assume target systems are employing the vulnerable configuration if applicable.

3. MySQL Stored SQL Injection (CVE-2013-0375)

Vulnerability

A vulnerability in the MySQL Server database could allow a remote, authenticated user to inject SQL code that runs with high privileges on a remote MySQL Server database. A successful attack could allow any data in the remote MySQL database to be read or modified. The vulnerability occurs due to insufficient validation of user-supplied data as it is replicated to remote MySQL Server instances.

Attack

An attacker requires an account on the target MySQL database with the privilege to modify user-supplied identifiers, such as table names. The account must be on a database which is configured to replicate data to one or more remote MySQL databases. An attack consists of logging in using the account and modifying an identifier to a new value that contains a quote character and a fragment of malicious SQL. This SQL will later be replicated to, and executed on, one or more remote systems, as a highly privileged user. The malicious SQL is injected into SQL statements in a way that prevents the execution of arbitrary SQL statements.

CVSS v2.0 Base Score: 5.5

Metric Value
Access Vector Network
Access Complexity Low
Authentication Single
Confidentiality Impact Partial
Integrity Impact Partial
Availability Impact None

CVSS v3.1 Base Score: 6.4

Metric Value Comments
Attack Vector Network The attacker connects to the exploitable MySQL database over a network.
Attack Complexity Low Replication must be enabled on the target database. Following the guidance in Section 2.1.2 of the Specification Document that was added in CVSS v3.1, we assume the system is configured in this way.
Privileges Required Low The attacker requires an account with the ability to change user-supplied identifiers, such as table names. Basic users do not get this privilege by default, but it is not considered a sufficiently trusted privilege to warrant this metric being High.
User Interaction None No user interaction is required as replication happens automatically.
Scope Changed The vulnerable component is the MySQL server database that the attacker logs into to perform the attack. The impacted component is a remote MySQL server database (or databases) that this database replicates to.
Confidentiality Low The injected SQL runs with high privilege and can access information the attacker should not have access to. Although this runs on a remote database (or databases), it may be possible to exfiltrate the information as part of the SQL statement. The malicious SQL is injected into SQL statements that are part of the replication functionality, preventing the attacker from executing arbitrary SQL statements.
Integrity Low The injected SQL runs with high privilege and can modify information the attacker should not have access to. The malicious SQL is injected into SQL statements that are part of the replication functionality, preventing the attacker from executing arbitrary SQL statements.
Availability None Although injected code is run with high privilege, the nature of this attack prevents arbitrary SQL statements being run that could affect the availability of MySQL databases.

4. SSLv3 POODLE Vulnerability (CVE-2014-3566)

Vulnerability

The SSL protocol 3.0, as used in OpenSSL through 1.0.1i and other products, uses nondeterministic CBC padding, which makes it easier for man in the middle attackers to obtain plaintext data via a padding-oracle attack, aka the "POODLE" (Padding Oracle on Downgraded Legacy Encryption) issue.

Attack

A typical attack scenario is that a victim has visited a web server and their web browser now contains a cookie that an attacker wishes to steal. For a successful attack, the attacker must be able to modify network traffic between the victim and this web server, and both victim and system must be willing to use SSL 3.0 for encryption.

A typical attack starts by the attacker tricking the victim into visiting a web site containing malicious code that then runs on the victim's web browser. Same Origin Policy (SOP) restrictions in web browsers prevent this code from directly accessing the cookie the attacker is trying to steal, but HTTP requests that the code sends to the web server automatically have the cookie added, and this behavior is used in the attack.

The malicious code sends an HTTP request that guesses the value of the first byte of the cookie and positions this byte in a specific location. The attacker modifies the encrypted HTTP request such that this byte is used as a padding value. If the server accepts the modified request, the value guessed was correct; if not, the code guesses a different value in a new request. This process is repeated until the entire cookie is disclosed.

Note: The CVSS v3.1 scoring below adheres to the guidelines for Scoring Vulnerabilities in Software Libraries from the CVSS v3.1 User Guide. Scoring is based on the reasonable worst-case implementation scenario, and assumes, for example, that an SSL library will typically be bound to the network stack (AV:N).

CVSS v2.0 Base Score: 4.3

Metric Value
Access Vector Network
Access Complexity Medium
Authentication None
Confidentiality Impact Partial
Integrity Impact None
Availability Impact None

CVSS v3.1 Base Score: 3.1

Metric Value Comments
Attack Vector Network The attack is conducted over a network. Note that the attack can take place at any point between the victim and web server over which the network traffic is routed. The value is therefore Network rather than Adjacent Network; the latter is only used for attacks where the attacker must be on the same physical network (or equivalent).
Attack Complexity High This is a man in the middle attack, and therefore complex for the attacker to perform.
Privileges Required None An attacker requires no privileges to mount an attack.
User Interaction Required The victim must be tricked into running malicious code on their web browser.
Scope Unchanged The vulnerable component is the web server because it insecurely responds to padding errors in a way that can be used to brute force encrypted data. The impacted component is also the web server because the cookie information disclosed is part of its authorization authority.
Confidentiality Low The attack discloses cookie information that the attacker should not have access to.
Integrity None
Availability None

5. VMware Guest to Host Escape Vulnerability (CVE-2012-1516)

Vulnerability

Due to a flaw in the handler function for Remote Procedure Call (RPC) commands, it is possible to manipulate data pointers within the Virtual Machine Executable (VMX) process. This vulnerability may allow a user in a Guest Virtual Machine to crash the VMX process resulting in a Denial of Service (DoS) on the host or potentially execute code on the host.

Attack

A successful exploit requires an attacker to have access to a Guest Virtual Machine (VM). The Guest VM needs to be configured to have 4GB or more of memory. The attacker would then have to construct a specially crafted remote RPC call to exploit the VMX process.

The VMX process runs in the VMkernel that is responsible for handling input/output to devices that are not critical to performance. It is also responsible for communicating with user interfaces, snapshot managers, and remote console. Each virtual machine has its own VMX process which interacts with the host processes via the VMkernel.

The attacker can exploit the vulnerability to crash the VMX process resulting in a DoS of the host or potentially execute code on the host operating system.

CVSS v2.0 Base Score: 9.0

Metric Value
Access Vector Network
Access Complexity Low
Authentication Single
Confidentiality Impact Complete
Integrity Impact Complete
Availability Impact Complete

CVSS v3.1 Base Score: 9.9

Metric Value Comments
Attack Vector Network VMX process is bound to the network stack and the attacker can send RPC commands remotely.
Attack Complexity Low The only required condition for this attack is for virtual machines to have 4GB of memory. Virtual machines that have less than 4GB of memory are not affected.
Privileges Required Low The attacker must have access to the guest virtual machine. This is easy in a tenant environment.
User Interaction None The attacker requires no user interaction to successfully exploit the vulnerability. RPC commands can be sent anytime.
Scope Changed The vulnerable component is a VMX process that can only be accessed from the guest virtual machine. The impacted component is the host operating system which has separate authorization authority from the guest virtual machine.
Confidentiality High Full compromise of the host operating system via remote code execution.
Integrity High Full compromise of the host operating system via remote code execution.
Availability High Full compromise of the host operating system via remote code execution.

6. Apache Tomcat XML Parser Vulnerability (CVE-2009-0783)

Vulnerability

Apache Tomcat 4.1.0 through 4.1.39, 5.5.0 through 5.5.27, and 6.0.0 through 6.0.18 permits web applications to replace an XML parser used for other web applications, which allows local users to read or modify the (1) web.xml, (2) context.xml, or (3) tld files of arbitrary web applications via a crafted application that is loaded earlier than the target application.

Attack

This Tomcat vulnerability allows a web-apps to reference an XML parser instead of using the default Apache XML parser. The attacker must remove all existing web-apps including those in server/webapps, then install a web-app with an XML parser is stored in WEB-INF/lib. This will cause Tomcat to use the new XML parser to process all web.xml, context.xml and tld files of other webapps. If that non-standard XML parser is replaced with a malicious one, the content of the victim web app XML can be disclosed, the resulting JSP could be corrupted (if it compiled at all) or possibly even weaponized for further attacks.

There are 2 different ways this attack may manifest. First a local privileged user could simply replace the non-Apache XML parser with a malicious variant. The second is that an attacker may use social engineering and user interaction to inject the malicious XML parser into the system. We will score for the former.

CVSS v2.0 Base Score: 4.6

Metric Value
Access Vector Local
Access Complexity Low
Authentication None
Confidentiality Impact Partial
Integrity Impact Partial
Availability Impact Partial

CVSS v3.1 Base Score: 4.2

Metric Value Comments
Attack Vector Local Local user access is required to read/modify Tomcat configuration files.
Attack Complexity Low No special knowledge is necessary to impact XML parser integrity.
Privileges Required High The user requires high privileges to be able to modify Tomcat configuration files.
User Interaction None
Scope Unchanged Assuming simple webapps that do not maintain separate authorization authority.
Confidentiality Low Webapp xml and tld files can be exposed.
Integrity Low The integrity of the XML parser is lost, possibly resulting in a corrupt JSP.
Availability Low The reasonable outcome behind modifying the XML parser is to make certain web applications unavailable.

7. Cisco IOS Arbitrary Command Execution Vulnerability (CVE-2012-0384)

Vulnerability

Cisco IOS 12.2 through 12.4 and 15.0 through 15.2 and IOS XE 2.1.x through 2.6.x and 3.1.xS before 3.1.2S, 3.2.xS through 3.4.xS before 3.4.2S, 3.5.xS before 3.5.1S, and 3.1.xSG and 3.2.xSG before 3.2.2SG, when AAA authorization is enabled, allow remote authenticated users to bypass intended access restrictions and execute commands via a (1) HTTP or (2) HTTPS session, aka Bug ID CSCtr91106.

Attack

The vulnerability allows an attacker to bypass command authorization restrictions assigned to their specific user account and execute commands that are available to the Roll/Privilege level for which the user is assigned. For example, a user that is in a group that is assigned to Privilege level 15 (admin) but was restricted to executing a single command via AAA (RADIUS/TACACS) could exploit the vulnerability to execute any other command available to an unrestricted admin user at Privilege level 15.

CVSS v2.0 Base Score: 8.5

Metric Value
Access Vector Network
Access Complexity Medium
Authentication Single
Confidentiality Impact Complete
Integrity Impact Complete
Availability Impact Complete

CVSS v3.1 Base Score: 7.2

Metric Value Comments
Attack Vector Network Attacks are executed via network API.
Attack Complexity Low No specialized conditions or advanced knowledge is required.
Privileges Required High While several variants are possible, assume worst-case scenario of captive admin exploiting vulnerability.
User Interaction None No additional user interaction required for exploit.
Scope Unchanged The vulnerability allows authorization bypass, but impact is contained to the original scope of vulnerable component.
Confidentiality High Successful exploitation could result in a complete compromise of the targeted device which results in a complete (High) impact on Confidentiality of the device.
Integrity High Successful exploitation could result in a complete compromise of the targeted device which results in a complete (High) impact on Integrity of the device.
Availability High Successful exploitation could result in a complete compromise of the targeted device which results in a complete (High) impact on the Availability of the device.

8. Apple iWork Denial of Service Vulnerability (CVE-2015-1098)

Vulnerability

iWork in Apple iOS before 8.3 and Apple OS X before 10.10.3 allows remote attackers to execute arbitrary code or cause a denial of service (memory corruption) via a crafted iWork file.

Attack

A remote user can create a specially crafted iWork file that, when loaded by the target user, will trigger a memory corruption error and execute arbitrary code. The attacker must deliver and then convince the local user to open the malicious iWork file.

CVSS v2.0 Base Score: 6.8

Metric Value
Access Vector Network
Access Complexity Medium
Authentication None
Confidentiality Impact Partial
Integrity Impact Partial
Availability Impact Partial

CVSS v3.1 Base Score: 7.8

Metric Value Comments
Attack Vector Local The vulnerability is in the local parser.
Attack Complexity Low Specialized conditions or advanced knowledge is not required.
Privileges Required None
User Interaction Required The victim needs to open the malicious iWork file.
Scope Unchanged
Confidentiality High Arbitrary code execution.
Integrity High Arbitrary code execution.
Availability High Arbitrary code execution.

9. OpenSSL Heartbleed Vulnerability (CVE-2014-0160)

Vulnerability

The (1) TLS and (2) DTLS implementations in OpenSSL 1.0.1 before 1.0.1g do not properly handle Heartbeat Extension packets, which allows remote attackers to obtain sensitive information from process memory via crafted packets that trigger a buffer over-read, as demonstrated by reading private keys, related to d1_both.c and t1_lib.c, aka the Heartbleed bug.

Attack

A successful attack requires only sending a specially crafted message to a web server running OpenSSL. The attacker constructs a malformed “heartbeat request” with a large field length and small payload size. The vulnerable server does not validate that the length of the payload against the provided field length and will return up to 64 kB of server memory to the attacker. It is likely that this memory was previously utilized by OpenSSL. Data returned may contain sensitive information such as encryption keys or user names and passwords that could be used by the attacker to launch further attacks

CVSS v2.0 Base Score: 5.0

Metric Value
Access Vector Network
Access Complexity Low
Authentication None
Confidentiality Impact Partial
Integrity Impact None
Availability Impact None

CVSS v3.1 Base Score: 7.5

Metric Value Comments
Attack Vector Network The vulnerability is in a network service that uses OpenSSL.
Attack Complexity Low An attacker needs to only find a listening network service to mount an attack.
Privileges Required None An attacker requires no privileges to mount an attack.
User Interaction None No user access is required for an attacker to launch a successful attack.
Scope Unchanged The vulnerable component is OpenSSL which is integrated with the network service, therefore no change in scope occurs during the attack.
Confidentiality High Access to only some restricted information is obtained, but the disclosed information presents a direct, serious impact to the affected scope (e.g. the attacker can read the administrator's password, or private keys in memory are disclosed to the attacker).
Integrity None No information can be modified by the attacker.
Availability None The attacker cannot affect availability through this attack.

10. GNU Bourne-Again Shell (Bash) ‘Shellshock’ Vulnerability (CVE-2014-6271)

Vulnerability

GNU Bash through 4.3 processes trailing strings after function definitions in the values of environment variables, which allows remote attackers to execute arbitrary code via a crafted environment, as demonstrated by vectors involving the ForceCommand feature in OpenSSH sshd, the mod_cgi and mod_cgid modules in the Apache HTTP Server, scripts executed by unspecified DHCP clients, and other situations in which setting the environment occurs across a privilege boundary from Bash execution, a.k.a. "Shellshock."

Attack

A successful attack can be launched by an attacker directly against the vulnerable GNU Bash shell, or in certain cases, by an unauthenticated, remote attacker through services either written in GNU Bash or services spawning GNU Bash shells. In the case of an attack against the Apache HTTP Server running dynamic content CGI modules, an attacker can submit a request while providing specially crafted commands as environment variables. These commands will be interpreted by the handler program, the GNU Bash shell, with the privilege of the running HTTPD process. As such, environment variables passed by the attacker could allow installation of software, account enumeration, denial of service, etc. Attacks against other services that have a relationship with the GNU Bash shell are similarly possible.

CVSS v2.0 Base Score: 10.0

Metric Value
Access Vector Network
Access Complexity Low
Authentication None
Confidentiality Impact Complete
Integrity Impact Complete
Availability Impact Complete

CVSS v3.1 Base Score: 9.8

Metric Value Comments
Attack Vector Network The reasonable worst-case scenario is a network attack via a web server.
Attack Complexity Low An attacker needs to only gain access to a listening service that uses the GNU Bash shell as an interpreter or interact with a GNU Bash shell directly.
Privileges Required None The reasonable worst-case scenario is an attack via a web server which does not require any privileges, e.g., a simple CGI script.
User Interaction None No user interaction is required for an attacker to launch a successful attack.
Scope Unchanged The vulnerable component is the GNU Bash shell which is used as an interpreter for various services or can be accessed directly. It runs within the security authority of the operating system. The impacted component is also the operating system, so there is no scope change.
Confidentiality High An attacker can take complete control of the affected system.
Integrity High An attacker can take complete control of the affected system.
Availability High An attacker can take complete control of the affected system.

11. DNS Kaminsky Bug (CVE-2008-1447)

Vulnerability

The DNS protocol, as implemented in (1) BIND 8 and 9 before 9.5.0-P1, 9.4.2-P1, and 9.3.5-P1; (2) Microsoft DNS in Windows 2000 SP4, XP SP2 and SP3, and Server 2003 SP1 and SP2; and other implementations allow remote attackers to spoof DNS traffic via a birthday attack that uses in-bailiwick referrals to conduct cache poisoning against recursive resolvers, related to insufficient randomness of DNS transaction IDs and source ports, aka "DNS Insufficient Socket Entropy Vulnerability" or "the Kaminsky bug."

Attack

A successful exploit requires an attacker to identify a recursive nameserver running an implementation of DNS that does not supply sufficient randomization of DNS query/transaction IDs combined with sufficient randomization of source ports. The attacker then must configure a nameserver to be authoritative for a target domain and obtain the source port used by the victim recursive name server. The attacker then queries the victim recursive nameserver for a name within the target domain. Immediately after this request is sent the attacker sends a flood of crafted responses to the victim recursive nameserver attempting to properly guess the query/transaction ID. If the crafted response successfully matches and arrives prior to a legitimate answer from the actual authoritative source, the victim recursive nameserver will accept the crafted response and any information within it. This response data will then be stored in the recursive server cache and remain there based on the TTL parameters specified by the attacker in the response. All queries matching the target domain sent to the victim recursive nameserver will then be answered by the poisoned cache and redirect traffic to the attacker’s malicious nameserver and thus direct traffic where ever the attacker wishes.

CVSS v2.0 Base Score: 5.0

Metric Value
Access Vector Network
Access Complexity Low
Authentication None
Confidentiality Impact None
Integrity Impact Partial
Availability Impact None

CVSS v3.1 Base Score: 6.8

Metric Value Comments
Attack Vector Network The attacker is sending the packets over the network.
Attack Complexity High The attacker must configure an authoritative source with a public IP to be routed to by the recursive server. The attacker must also beat a race condition to successfully exploit (regardless of how quick that race condition may occur).
Privileges Required None
User Interaction None
Scope Changed The vulnerable component is the DNS server. The impacted component is the victim system who is unknowingly re-directed to unintended network locations based on the malicious DNS answers.
Confidentiality None Any confidentiality impact is secondary.
Integrity High The victim user has trusted a poisoned cache and is being directed to any destination the attacker wishes.
Availability None Any availability impact is secondary.

Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability are scored to both vulnerable component and impacted component. However, the impacts are the same.

12. Sophos Login Screen Bypass Vulnerability (CVE-2014-2005)

Vulnerability

Sophos Disk Encryption (SDE) 5.x in Sophos Enterprise Console (SEC) 5.x before 5.2.2 does not enforce intended authentication requirements for a resume action from sleep mode, which allows physically proximate attackers to obtain desktop access by leveraging the absence of a login screen.

Attack

When Microsoft Windows systems resume (“wake up”) from sleep or hibernation, the default action is to require the user to re-authenticate. When SDE is installed, this functionality becomes disabled, allowing an attacker who has physical access to the system access without credentials by triggering a resume action.

CVSS v2.0 Base Score: 6.9

Metric Value
Access Vector Local
Access Complexity Medium
Authentication None
Confidentiality Impact Complete
Integrity Impact Complete
Availability Impact Complete

CVSS v3.1 Base Score: 6.8

Metric Value Comments
Attack Vector Physical Requires physical access to the device.
Attack Complexity Low While the attack requires a specific pre-requisite (resume from sleep mode), the attack will succeed every time that pre-requisite occurs, resulting in low complexity.
Privileges Required None No privileges are required.
User Interaction None
Scope Unchanged
Confidentiality High The attacker has full access to the system with the authority of the logged-in user. We assume the worst-case, an administrative user.
Integrity High The attacker has full access to the system with the authority of the logged-in user. We assume the worst-case, an administrative user.
Availability High The attacker has full access to the system with the authority of the logged-in user. We assume the worst-case, an administrative user. Regarding availability impact vs. required control of the device. We are measuring the capabilities granted to the attacker from the vulnerability.

13. Joomla Directory Traversal Vulnerability (CVE-2010-0467)

Vulnerability

Directory traversal vulnerability in the ccNewsletter (com_ccnewsletter) component 1.0.5 for Joomla allows remote attackers to read arbitrary files via a .. (dot dot) in the controller parameter in a ccnewsletter action to index.php.

Attack

A malicious HTTP request that contains the vulnerable component ‘com_ccnewsletter’, and proper series of ‘../’ entries allows an attacker the ability to change from the directory where the webserver is installed to any directory on the file system of the host OS. Depending on the privileges of the web application server, an attacker would be able to view the contents of any file in the directory searched. Scope is changed due to the ability of the vulnerable component to access the affected system outside of the controlling authoritative component.

CVSS v2.0 Base Score: 5.0

Metric Value
Access Vector Network
Access Complexity Low
Authentication None
Confidentiality Impact Partial
Integrity Impact None
Availability Impact None

CVSS v3.1 Base Score: 5.8

Metric Value Comments
Attack Vector Network
Attack Complexity Low
Privileges Required None
User Interaction None
Scope Changed It is not clear from the publicly available information if Joomla’s own authorization authority is enabled or plays a role here. For this vulnerability we are assuming that Joomla has its own separate authorization authority and the attacker is able to break out from it and access files on the file system with privileges of web server which has a separate authorization authority.
Confidentiality Low The attacker is able to read files to which web server has access.
Integrity None There is no indication that the files can be modified as well.
Availability None No availability impact.

14. Cisco Access Control Bypass Vulnerability (CVE-2012-1342)

Vulnerability

The Cisco Carrier Routing System (CRS-X) running IOS XR Software versions 3.9, 4.0, and 4.1 allows remote attackers to bypass ACL entries via fragmented packets, aka Bug ID CSCtj10975. The vulnerability allows an unauthenticated, remote attacker to bypass device Access Control Entries (ACEs) and send network traffic that should be denied. It only affects devices that have specific ACE structures.

Attack

Exploitation of this vulnerability can be performed with wide-area network access to the target system and requires the ability to send fragmented IPv4 packets to the vulnerable component (router). An attacker can effectively bypass protocol-based access control for non-initial fragments (fragments with a fragment offset not equal to zero), resulting in an integrity impact on the network or devices under the protection of the firewall.

CVSS v2.0 Base Score: 5.0

Metric Value
Access Vector Network
Access Complexity Low
Authentication None
Confidentiality Impact None
Integrity Impact Partial
Availability Impact None

CVSS v3.1 Base Score: 5.8

Metric Value Comments
Attack Vector Network The attacker can be multiple hops away from the vulnerable component.
Attack Complexity Low The complexity of creating packets that match the criteria (non-first fragments) is low.
Privileges Required None A non-privileged user can initiate the packet stream.
User Interaction None The attack does not rely on any user interaction.
Scope Changed The vulnerable component is the CRS itself, while the impacted component is the network and devices protected downstream by the CRS.
Confidentiality None Impact is scored against the network and devices beyond the firewall (impacted component), and not the CRS (vulnerable component). Any confidentiality loss is a secondary impact.
Integrity Low Exploitation results in an integrity impact on the network or devices (impacted component) under the protection of the CRS (vulnerable component).
Availability None Impact is scored against the network and devices beyond the firewall (impacted component), and not the CRS (vulnerable component). Any availability is a secondary impact (for example, targeted DoS attack).

15. Juniper Proxy ARP Denial of Service Vulnerability (CVE-2013-6014)

Vulnerability

If Proxy ARP is enabled on an unnumbered interface, an attacker can poison the ARP cache and create a bogus forwarding table entry for an IP address, effectively creating a denial of service for that subscriber or interface. When Proxy ARP is enabled on an unnumbered interface, the router will answer any ARP message from any IP address which could lead to exploitable information disclosure. This issue can affect any product or platform running Junos OS 10.4, 11.4, 11.4X27, 12.1, 12.1X44, 12.1X45, 12.2, 12.3, or 13.1, supporting unnumbered interfaces.

Attack

Exploitation of this vulnerability requires network adjacency with the target system and the ability to generate arbitrary ARP replies sent to the connected interface. A rogue subscriber can poison the ARP cache and/or create a rogue forwarding table entry for an IP of choice, effectively obscuring that IP address or redirecting IP traffic to the attacker.

The resultant impact can be observed as unauthorized modification of a database on the vulnerable component, or as an impact on confidentiality or availability on attached devices (impacted component). Since the CVSSv3 score for a high confidentiality (or availability) impact on a changed scope is higher than a partial impact on the vulnerable component, CVSSv3 guidance recommends scoring for the higher overall impact.

CVSS v2.0 Base Score: 6.1

Metric Value
Access Vector Adjacent Network
Access Complexity Low
Authentication None
Confidentiality Impact None
Integrity Impact Complete
Availability Impact None

CVSS v3.1 Base Score: 9.3

Metric Value Comments
Attack Vector Adjacent Network Exploitation of this vulnerability requires network adjacency with the target system.
Attack Complexity Low The complexity of crafting ARP packets to exploit the vulnerability is low.
Privileges Required None A non-privileged user can generate the ARP packets.
User Interaction None The attack does not require any user interaction.
Scope Changed The vulnerable component is the Junos device itself, while the impacted component is any device for which the ARP entry is poisoned.”
Confidentiality High The attacker can read any traffic intended for the targeted subscriber(s).
Integrity None While modification of the routing table on the vulnerable component would represent an impact on integrity, the Integrity impact on the downstream (impacted) component is None.
Availability High Impact on Availability for the downstream (impacted) component results in a complete denial of service for the targeted subscriber(s).

16. Cantemo Portal Stored Cross-site Scripting Vulnerability (CVE-2019-7551)

Vulnerability

Cantemo Portal before 3.2.13, 3.3.x before 3.3.8, and 3.4.x before 3.4.9 has a stored cross-site scripting (XSS) vulnerability.

Attack

The Cantemo Portal application is affected by a stored XSS vulnerability that allows low privileged application users to store malicious scripts in the Filename field. These scripts are executed in a victim’s browser when they open the page containing the vulnerable field.

In the worst case, the victim who inadvertently triggers the attack is a highly privileged administrator, so the injected scripts can perform operations on the server with the privileges of the victim administrator. Such actions include account creation and deletion, deletion of information contained within the portal application, and installation of a remote shell that could lead to further compromise.

References:

https://www.bishopfox.com/news/2019/03/cantemo-portal-version-3-8-4-cross-site-scripting/

https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln/detail/CVE-2019-7551

https://blog-posts--cantemo.netlify.com/news/2019/03/cantemo-portal-xss-vulnerabilities/

CVSS v2.0 Base Score: 6.0

Metric Value
Access Vector Network
Access Complexity Medium
Authentication Single
Confidentiality Impact Partial
Integrity Impact Partial
Availability Impact Partial

CVSS v3.1 Base Score: 9.0

Metric Value Comments
Attack Vector Network A victim must access a vulnerable system via the network.
Attack Complexity Low The exploit is repeatable without the requirement of system specific reconnaissance or dealing with race conditions.
Privileges Required Low An attacker must possess some user level privileges to store the malicious scripts in the vulnerable application field.
User Interaction Required The victim needs to navigate to a web page on the vulnerable server that contains malicious scripts injected by the attacker.
Scope Changed The vulnerability is in the web server, but the malicious scripts execute in the victim’s browser on their machine.
Confidentiality High In the worst case, an attacker can create privileged users or perform RCE via shell uploading to take control of the Cantemo Portal application and the underlying operating system.
Integrity High In the worst case, an attacker can create privileged users or perform RCE via shell uploading to take control of the Cantemo Portal application and the underlying operating system.
Availability High In the worst case, an attacker can shut down the Cantemo Portal application, or otherwise disrupt service for all users.

17. Adobe Acrobat Buffer Overflow Vulnerability (CVE-2009-0658)

Vulnerability

Adobe Acrobat and Reader version 9.0 and earlier are vulnerable to a buffer overflow, caused by improper bounds checking when parsing a malformed JBIG2 image stream embedded within a PDF document. By persuading a victim to open a malicious PDF file, a remote attacker could overflow a buffer and execute arbitrary code on the system with the privileges of the victim or cause the application to crash.

Attack

The vulnerability is exploited by convincing a victim to open a malicious document on a system that uses a vulnerable version of Adobe Acrobat or Reader. An attacker must deliver a malicious document to the victim and relies upon the user to open it. Then the code execution achieved by the attacker depends on the privilege level of the user on the system and could potentially result in High impacts to Confidentiality, Integrity, and Availability.

References

http://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2009-0658

http://www.adobe.com/support/security/advisories/apsa09-01.html

CVSS v2.0 Base Score: 9.3

Metric Value
Access Vector Network
Access Complexity Medium
Authentication None
Confidentiality Impact Complete
Integrity Impact Complete
Availability Impact Complete

CVSS v3.1 Base Score: 7.8

Metric Value Comments
Attack Vector Local A flaw in the local document software that is triggered by opening a malformed document.
Attack Complexity Low
Privileges Required None
User Interaction Required The victim needs to open the malformed document.
Scope Unchanged
Confidentiality High Assuming a worst-case impact of the victim having High privileges on the affected system.
Integrity High Assuming a worst-case impact of the victim having High privileges on the affected system.
Availability High Assuming a worst-case impact of the victim having High privileges on the affected system.

18. Microsoft Windows Bluetooth Remote Code Execution Vulnerability (CVE-2011-1265)

Vulnerability

The Bluetooth Stack 2.1 in Microsoft Windows Vista SP1 and SP2 and Windows 7 Gold and SP1 does not prevent access to objects in memory that (1) were not properly initialized or (2) have been deleted, which allows remote attackers to execute arbitrary code via crafted Bluetooth packets, aka "Bluetooth Stack Vulnerability."

The vulnerability could allow remote code execution if an attacker sent a series of specially crafted Bluetooth packets to an affected system.

Attack

This vulnerability only affects systems with Bluetooth capability. The attacker first needs to obtain system’s 48-bit Bluetooth address, which is not “discoverable” by default in affected Windows versions. If the system were “discoverable,” it would respond to attacker SDP queries with its Bluetooth address. But in the default state, an attacker must obtain your Bluetooth address another way – either via bruteforcing it or extracting it from Bluetooth traffic captured over-the-air. The attacker would need to be in the same proximity as the target machine in order to send and receive radio transmissions within the Bluetooth radio spectrum. Once it is exploited, the attacker can run arbitrary code. The attacker could install programs; view, change, or delete data; or create new accounts with full user rights.

CVSS v2.0 Base Score: 8.3

Metric Value
Access Vector Adjacent Network
Access Complexity Low
Authentication None
Confidentiality Impact Complete
Integrity Impact Complete
Availability Impact Complete

CVSS v3.1 Base Score: 8.8

Metric Value Comments
Attack Vector Adjacent Network The attacker would need to be in the same proximity as the target machine in order to send and receive radio transmissions within the Bluetooth radio spectrum.
Attack Complexity Low We are assuming that Bluetooth is enabled on the OS. The attacker can obtain system’s 48-bit Bluetooth address by extracting it from Bluetooth traffic captured over-the-air. This attack vector is considered as Low Attack Complexity based on the criteria listed in the specification.
Privileges Required None An attacker requires no privileges to mount an attack.
User Interaction None No user interaction is required for this attack.
Scope Unchanged The vulnerable component and impacted component are the same, which is operating system.
Confidentiality High The attacker can view, change, or delete data; or create new accounts with full user rights.
Integrity High The attacker can view, change, or delete data; or create new accounts with full user rights.
Availability High The attacker can view, change, or delete data; or create new accounts with full user rights.

19. Apple iOS Security Control Bypass Vulnerability (CVE-2014-2019)

Vulnerability

The iCloud subsystem in Apple iOS before 7.1 allows physically proximate attackers to bypass an intended password requirement and turn off the Find My iPhone service or complete a Delete Account action and then associate this service with a different Apple ID account, by entering an arbitrary iCloud Account Password value and a blank iCloud Account Description value.

Attack

Find My iPhone helps you locate and protect your iPhone, iPad, iPod touch, or Mac if it’s ever lost or stolen. With Find My iPhone set up on your device, you can do the following:

• Locate your device on a map

• Play a sound on your device to help you find it

• Use Lost Mode to lock and track your device

• Remotely erase all your personal information from the device

Find My iPhone includes a feature called Activation Lock that is designed to prevent anyone else from using your iPhone, iPad, or iPod touch if it's ever lost or stolen. Activation Lock is enabled automatically when you turn on Find My iPhone on a device using iOS 7 or later. Find My iPhone Activation Lock, your Apple ID and password will be required before anyone can:

• Turn off Find My iPhone on your device

• Erase your device

• Reactivate and use your device

This vulnerability allows the attacker to bypass the Activation Lock when attempting to turn off Find My iPhone. The attacker can turn off Find My iPhone feature, delete the current iCloud account and associate the device with new iCloud Account without any Apple ID and password of current user.

CVSS v2.0 Base Score: 4.9

Metric Value
Access Vector Local
Access Complexity Low
Authentication None
Confidentiality Impact None
Integrity Impact Complete
Availability Impact None

CVSS v3.1 Base Score: 4.6

Metric Value Comments
Attack Vector Physical The attacker requires physical access to the device
Attack Complexity Low The attack steps are simple
Privileges Required None We will consider the worst-case scenario and assume that the device is not protected with a PIN
User Interaction None No user interaction is required for this attack
Scope Unchanged The vulnerable and impacted components are the same
Confidentiality None No direct impact to confidentiality
Integrity High High due to importance (security) of this feature
Availability None No direct impact to the availability of the service

20. SearchBlox Cross-Site Request Forgery Vulnerability (CVE-2015-0970)

Vulnerability

SearchBlox is an enterprise search and data analytics service utilizing Apache Lucene and Elasticsearch.

A cross-site request forgery (CSRF) vulnerability in SearchBlox Server before version 8.2 allows remote attackers to perform actions with the permissions of a victim user, provided the victim user has an active session and is induced to trigger the malicious request.

Attack

A specially-crafted URL to the SearchBlox Server containing the appropriate parameter values of an action the attacker wants to perform may be sent to a victim user. This URL may be sent to the victim as part of an HTML document, an email, or via some other method. If the user interacts with the URL while the user has an active session on the SearchBlox Server, the URL will send a request to the server to perform some action with the victim user’s credentials. Since SearchBlox Server prior to version 8.2 has no request validation mechanism, the request will be completed if the victim user’s permissions allow such an action. Possible actions include creating or deleting a user account or uploading new SearchBlox configuration settings.

CVSS v2.0 Base Score: 6.8

Metric Value
Access Vector Network
Access Complexity Medium
Authentication None
Confidentiality Impact Partial
Integrity Impact Partial
Availability Impact Partial

CVSS v3.1 Base Score: 8.8

Metric Value Comments
Attack Vector Network A victim must access a vulnerable system via the network.
Attack Complexity Low A phishing email does not absolutely require victim reconnaissance.
Privileges Required None The attacker does not need any permissions to perform this attack, the attacker lets the victim perform the action on the attacker’s behalf.
User Interaction Required The victim must click a specially crafted link provided by the attacker.
Scope Unchanged The vulnerable component is SearchBlox. The impacted component is also SearchBlox as the actions only affect the SearchBlox configuration.
Confidentiality High The attacker can obtain permissions to view all confidential data contained in SearchBlox.
Integrity High User accounts can be modified at will as well as SearchBlox configuration.
Availability High SearchBlox configuration may be modified such as to disable services.

21. SSL/TLS MITM Vulnerability (CVE-2014-0224)

Vulnerability

An attacker using a carefully crafted handshake can force the use of weak keying material in OpenSSL SSL/TLS clients and servers. This can be exploited by a Man-in-the-middle (MITM) attack where the attacker can decrypt and modify traffic from the attacked client and server. The attack can only be performed between a vulnerable client and server. This is also known as the "CCS Injection" vulnerability, named after the vulnerable ChangeCipherSpec messages.

Attack

OpenSSL before 0.9.8za, 1.0.0 before 1.0.0m, and 1.0.1 before 1.0.1h does not properly restrict processing of ChangeCipherSpec messages during the SSL/TLS handshake. A ChangeCipherSpec message tells the client/server to switch from unencrypted to encrypted communication. If a ChangeCipherSpec message is sent by the attacker after the connection is initiated but before the master secret has been generated, OpenSSL will generate the keys for the handshake with an empty master secret. This zero-length master key allows an attacker to crack the encryption and consequently obtain sensitive information and/or modify SSL/TLS traffic. Note that an attacker requires a man-in-the-middle position with the client user in order to exploit this attack.

OpenSSL is a library that by itself is not prone to attack. The application that embeds OpenSSL becomes vulnerable. So, scoring the vulnerability in OpenSSL must be done assuming the usage that has the worst consequences. Although some programs use OpenSSL purely to perform cryptographic operations unrelated to networking, e.g., to encrypt/decrypt files stored on disk, the reasonable worst-case scenario where the vulnerability applies is that a program uses OpenSSL to encrypt/decrypt network traffic. The CVSS v3.1 score follows the guidance in User Guide Section 3.7, “Scoring Vulnerabilities in Software Libraries”.

CVSS v2.0 Base Score: 5.8

Metric Value
Access Vector Network
Access Complexity Medium
Authentication None
Confidentiality Impact Partial
Integrity Impact Partial
Availability Impact None

CVSS v3.1 Base Score: 7.4

Metric Value Comments
Attack Vector Network The attacker needs network level access to the communication channel between the client and server
Attack Complexity High The attacker must be able to monitor and alter victims' network traffic acting as a man in the middle
Privileges Required None Measurable effort is typically required to intercept network traffic in this way and there are uncertainties involved, making attack complexity "High".
User Interaction None The attacker doesn’t need any privilege with the client or the server in order to exploit this vulnerability.
Scope Unchanged If any human party is involved in the communication, his/her intervention is required. But user interaction is not required for system to system communications.
Confidentiality High As per “User Guide Section 3.7. Scoring Vulnerabilities in Software Libraries”, the reasonable worst-case usage scenario is considered.
Integrity High The vulnerable component is OpenSSL. The impacted component is the application using OpenSSL. But OpenSSL, being an embedded library, resides in the security authority of the embedding application. So, the impacts don’t propagate beyond the security authority where vulnerable component resides.
Availability None An attacker is able to decrypt all SSL/TLS traffic between the client and server.

Following the guidance in “User Guide Section 3.7. Scoring Vulnerabilities in Software Libraries”, the above score applies when scoring the vulnerability in the OpenSSL library itself. If an embedding application is affected by the same vulnerability, it should be scored in the context of the embedding application based on how the vulnerable OpenSSL library is used.

For example, if the embedding application allows human users to only read sensitive information on a communication channel encrypted by the vulnerable OpenSSL library, the score of the vulnerability in the application might be adjusted to 5.3 (AV:N/AC:H/PR:N/UI:R/S:U/C:H/I:N/A:N). UI:R as human intervention is required in the scenario. I:N/A:N as the attacker cannot alter the data or availability of that vulnerable application embedding OpenSSL.

22. Google Chrome Sandbox Bypass vulnerability (CVE-2012-5376)

Vulnerability

The Inter-process Communication (IPC) implementation in Google Chrome before 22.0.1229.94 allows remote attackers to bypass intended sandbox restrictions and write to arbitrary files by leveraging access to a renderer process.

Attack

Google Chrome uses a multi-process architecture in which each browser tab may run a separate renderer process that communicates with other Chrome processes using the IPC. By persuading a victim to visit a specially crafted Web site, a remote attacker could exploit this vulnerability to write arbitrary files to the operating system.

CVSS v2.0 Base Score: 10.0

Metric Value
Access Vector Network
Access Complexity Low
Authentication None
Confidentiality Impact Complete
Integrity Impact Complete
Availability Impact Complete

CVSS v3.1 Base Score: 9.6

Metric Value Comments
Attack Vector Network The victim must visit a malicious website that may exist outside the local network.
Attack Complexity Low The attacker does not need to perform any special reconnaissance for this attack.
Privileges Required None The attacker does not need any permissions to perform this attack, the attacker lets the victim perform the action on the attacker’s behalf.
User Interaction Required The victim must click a specially crafted link provided by the attacker.
Scope Changed Based on the assumption that the attacker is breaking out of Chrome’s controlled sandboxed environment, the vulnerable component is Google Chrome and the impacted component is the operating system on which Chrome is running.
Confidentiality High The worst-case scenario is Chrome running with administrative privileges. The attacker can overwrite system configuration and grant the attacker access to any data or Administrative privileged access on the system.
Integrity High The worst-case scenario is Chrome is running with administrative privileges. The attacker can overwrite any file, including important system files.
Availability High The worst-case scenario is Chrome running with administrative privileges. The attacker can cause a system crash by overwriting specific system files or denying a user access by system reconfiguration.

23. Google Chrome PDFium JPEG 2000 Remote Code Execution Vulnerability (CVE-2016-1645)

Vulnerability

This vulnerability allows remote attackers to execute arbitrary code on vulnerable installations of Google Chrome. User interaction is required to exploit this vulnerability in that the victim must visit a malicious page or open a malicious file.

The specific flaw exists within the handling of JPEG 2000 images. A specially crafted JPEG 2000 image embedded inside a PDF can force Google Chrome to write memory past the end of an allocated object. An attacker can leverage this vulnerability to execute arbitrary code under the context of the current process.

Attack

An attacker creates a PDF file embedding a maliciously crafted JPEG 2000 image. This is made available to victims, e.g., via a web page. A victim opens the PDF document using a Google Chrome browser, and the browser displays the PDF using the built-in PDFium PDF viewer. This triggers the exploit and runs the executable code that the attacker placed in the image, taking over the browser.

CVSS v2.0 Base Score: 9.3

Metric Value
Access Vector Network
Access Complexity Medium
Authentication None
Confidentiality Impact Complete
Integrity Impact Complete
Availability Impact Complete

CVSS v3.1 Base Score: 8.8

Metric Value Comments
Attack Vector Network Vulnerabilities where the vulnerable component is a separate program invoked from a browser, e.g., a word processor, and which require user interaction to download or receive malicious content which could also be delivered locally, should be scored as Local. For example, a document parsing vulnerability which does not require the network in order to be exploited should be scored as Local, regardless of the method used to distribute such a malicious document (e.g., it could be a link to a web site, or via a USB drive). However, for this vulnerability, a PDF file opened in Google Chrome is automatically displayed using the PDFium functionality that is part of the browser. In such cases where the victim could load a malicious PDF file either via a network or from local media (e.g., a hard disk or USB drive), we score Attack Vector as Network, as this gives the higher Base Score. Vulnerabilities in functionality added to a browser, e.g., libraries, plugins, extensions and add-ons, are treated as part of the browser when determining Attack Vector. For example, a vulnerability in Adobe Flash is scored with an Attack Vector of Network (assuming the victim loads the exploit over a network).
Attack Complexity Low Specialized access conditions or extenuating circumstances do not exist.
Privileges Required None An attacker requires no privileges to mount an attack.
User Interaction Required A successful attack requires a victim to open a malicious PDF file.
Scope Unchanged The vulnerable component is the victim's Google Chrome web browser. The impacted component is also the victim's Google Chrome browser.
Confidentiality High The Google Chrome web browser is completely compromised and runs executable code created by the attacker.
Integrity High The Google Chrome web browser is completely compromised and runs executable code created by the attacker.
Availability High The Google Chrome web browser is completely compromised and runs executable code created by the attacker.

24. SAMR/LSAD Privilege Escalation via Protocol Downgrade Vulnerability (“Badlock”) (CVE-2016-0128 and CVE-2016-2118)

Vulnerability

The Security Account Manager Remote (SAMR) and Local Security Authority (Domain Policy) (LSAD) protocols allow access to Windows domains and network shares via the Server Message Block (SMB) protocol. SAMR/LSAD allow setting an “auth level” which determines how the server authenticates requests. Specifically, setting an auth level of “CONNECT” does not properly sign and authenticate messages. An attacker with a man-in-the-middle position between a victim user and the remote SMB server can send a crafted request to downgrade the authentication level of the connection to “CONNECT”, allowing the attacker to then impersonate a victim, effectively gaining the privileges of the victim user.

Attack

If an attacker maintains a man-in-the-middle position between a victim and a remote SMB server, the attacker can modify requests from the victim to force the SMB server to downgrade its SAMR/LSAD protocols to use an auth level of CONNECT. The attack allows an attacker to access the communication channel used by the victim and impersonate the victim in transactions due to a lack of proper authentication of messages. Effectively, the user can escalate privileges to the privilege level of the victim user.

CVE-2016-0128 is the variant for Microsoft Windows and requires the victim user to be a domain administrator attempting an uncommon action, such as a domain join, for the attack to succeed. A particular consequence is that the SAM credentials database may be obtained, allowing further network access.

CVE-2016-2118, meanwhile, is the variant for SAMBA and may affect a more typical user performing more common actions such as file or printer sharing.

CVSS v2.0 Base Score: 5.8 (CVE-2016-0128) vs 6.8 (CVE-2016-2118)

Metric CVE-2016-0128 CVE-2016-2118
Access Vector Network Network
Access Complexity Medium Medium
Authentication None None
Confidentiality Impact Partial Partial
Integrity Impact Partial Partial
Availability Impact None Partial

CVSS v3.1 Base Score: 6.8 (CVE-2016-0128) vs 7.5 (CVE-2016-2118)

Metric CVE-2016-0128 CVE-2016-2118 Comments
Attack Vector Network Network This attack is not limited to a collision domain and may be performed against any user on the network for which a man-in-the-middle scenario may be established.
Attack Complexity High High The attacker requires specialized access conditions or extenuating circumstances in order to create a man-in-the-middle scenario. In many circumstances this would require access to a private internal network.
Privileges Required None None No extra privileges are required to mount an attack.
User Interaction Required Required A successful attack requires the victim user to perform a domain join, user account add, printer share, or similar action. The attacker must wait for an action to occur.
Scope Unchanged Unchanged For CVE-2016-0128, the vulnerable component is the Windows subsystem consisting of the Windows Domain Controller and associated SAM database, that authenticates the victim’s SMB connections. For CVE-2016-2118, the vulnerable component is the SAMBA server, that authenticates the victim’s SMB connections. For both vulnerabilities, the impacted component is the same as the vulnerable component.
Confidentiality High High An attacker can spoof a user and access the victim user’s resources on the vulnerable server. The attacker is assumed to target a highly privileged user. For CVE-2016-0128, a successful attack results in access to all data stored in the SAM. For CVE-2016-2118, although the attacker may not gain access to all data stored in the SAMBA server, it includes data considered to have a direct, serious impact. Confidentiality is therefore High in both cases.
Integrity High High An attacker can spoof a user and modify any of the user’s resources on the vulnerable server. The protocol downgrade removes the ability for the server to detect the manipulation. The attacker is assumed to target a highly privileged user. For CVE-2016-0128, a successful attack results in the ability to modify all data stored in the SAM. For CVE-2016-2118, although the attacker may not gain the ability to modify all data stored in the SAMBA server, modification of data considered to have a direct, serious impact is possible. Integrity is therefore High in both cases.
Availability None High For CVE-2016-0128, an attacker cannot immediately influence the availability of the service, therefore the Availability is None. For CVE-2016-2118, an attacker can immediately read/write files to a file or printer server, potentially degrading service or even shutting it down, so the impact is High.

25. WordPress Mail Plugin Reflected Cross-site Scripting Vulnerability (CVE-2017-5942)

Vulnerability

Versions of the WP Mail WordPress plugin before 1.2 are vulnerable to a reflected cross-site scripting (XSS) attack. The replyto parameter is not sufficiently sanitized, allowing JavaScript to be inserted in the URL.

Attack

The attacker creates a link to a WordPress website running a vulnerable version of the WP Mail plugin. This link contains malicious JavaScript code for the replyto parameter. The attacker fools a victim into visiting the link, e.g., by sending the link to the victim in an email or posting the link on a website and hoping it will be clicked.

When a victim clicks the link, the vulnerable WordPress server will send the victim a legitimate web page that has the malicious JavaScript chosen by the attacker. The victim's browser will run the malicious JavaScript in the context of the vulnerable WordPress website, allowing it to read and modify data associated with that site. Reflected XSS attacks typically steal cookies associated with the vulnerable website or launch further attacks.

CVSS v2.0 Base Score: 4.3

Metric Value
Access Vector Network
Access Complexity Medium
Authentication None
Confidentiality Impact None
Integrity Impact Partial
Availability Impact None

CVSS v3.1 Base Score: 6.1

Metric Value Comments
Attack Vector Network The attack can only be exploited over a network. We assume the vulnerable WordPress website is connected to the Internet, as this is a common deployment.
Attack Complexity Low The attacker can expect repeatable success.
Privileges Required None The attacker requires no privileges to perform the attack.
User Interaction Required A victim needs to click the malicious link created by the attacker.
Scope Changed The vulnerable component is the vulnerable WordPress web server. The impacted component is the victim's browser.
Confidentiality Low Information in the victim's browser associated with the vulnerable WordPress website can be read by the malicious JavaScript code and sent to the attacker.
Integrity Low Information in the victim's browser associated with the vulnerable WordPress website can be modified by the malicious JavaScript code.
Availability None The malicious JavaScript code cannot significantly impact the victim's browser.

26. Opera DLL search order hijacking (CVE-2018-18913)

Vulnerability

Opera before 57.0.3098.106 is vulnerable to a DLL Search Order hijacking attack where an attacker can send a ZIP archive composed of an HTML page along with a malicious DLL to the target. Once the document is opened, it may allow the attacker to take full control of the system from any location within the system. The issue lies in the loading of the shcore.dll and dcomp.dll files: these files are being searched for by the program in the same system-wide directory where the HTML file is executed.

Attack

The vulnerability allows an attacker to load a malicious DLL from any location accessible by the current user. This means that to exploit this vulnerability, an attacker will not need any special access to the system; instead, an attacker can craft a malicious package and send it across to his target. The target can download and keep this package anywhere in the system.

Once extracted and any HTML page is executed from this malicious package, due to the vulnerability, the browser tries to load the DLL files from its current folder. Here, the presence of malicious DLL files will trigger the backdoor as soon as the page tries to load in the browser.

The vulnerability is a little different than the conventional DLL hijack because most of the DLL hijacks occur from the executable path of the software and are not system-wide. This means in a conventional scenario the attacker will place malicious DLL files in the executable folder for the software which would typically be Program Files directory. However, such scenarios would require an attacker to have access to the target machine already. In this particular case, since the DLL files are searched from the current directory from where the HTML files are executed, the attacker will not require local access at all. [^1]

CVSS v2.0 Base Score: 6.9

Metric Value
Access Vector Local
Access Complexity Medium
Authentication None
Confidentiality Impact Complete
Integrity Impact Complete
Availability Impact Complete

CVSS v3.1 Base Score: 7.8

Metric Value Comments
Attack Vector Local Attacker must gain local access, either directly or through social engineering, to load the malicious DLL.
Attack Complexity Low Attack is repeatable and deterministic.
Privileges Required None No special privileges are required by the attacker.
User Interaction Required Victim interaction is required to execute the malicious DLL.
Scope Unchanged Vulnerable and Impacted Component are the same system.
Confidentiality High Allows the attacker to take full control of the system
Integrity High Allows the attacker to take full control of the system
Availability High Allows the attacker to take full control of the system

https://blog.lucideus.com/2019/02/opera-search-order-hijacking-cve-2018-18913.html

27. Remote Code Execution in Oracle Outside in Technology (CVE-2016-5558)

Vulnerability

Versions 8.4.0, 8.5.1, 8.5.2 and 8.5.3 of Oracle Outside in Technology include filters which perform insufficient validation of their inputs, resulting in unintended behavior.

Oracle Outside in Technology is a library and is not exploitable without a program that passes data to it. Section 3.7 of the User Guide provides guidance on how to score vulnerabilities in libraries and similar software.

Attack

The User Guide states that we assume the reasonable worst-case in how the library is likely to be used, score based on this usage and document these assumptions. The nature of the attack is based on the assumptions we make. These are discussed in more detail in the Comments column of the CVSS v3.1 table below.

A successful attack may allow an attacker to read all other data accessible to the library, modify some data accessible to the library, and create partial denial of service conditions.

In general, we assume the library is used by a program that passes malicious data to it without performing further checks.

CVSS v2.0 Base Score: 7.5

Metric Value
Access Vector Network
Access Complexity Low
Authentication None
Confidentiality Impact Partial
Integrity Impact Partial
Availability Impact Partial

CVSS v3.1 Base Score: 8.6

Metric Value Comments
Attack Vector Network Although it is possible that this program only accepts input from local processes, the library is commonly used with a web application server which is often deployed on the Internet. We assume the latter as it is the reasonable worst case, i.e. the metric value that results in the greatest Base Score.
Attack Complexity Low The library can be exploited at will, and we assume the program using the library is the same and does not add any complexity that an attacker needs to overcome to perform a successful attack.
Privileges Required None We assume the program using the library does not require credentials to be supplied before passing potentially malicious data to it. This is a reasonable worst-case assumption for this library as it is sometimes used on public websites to perform document and image conversions for anonymous users.
User Interaction None We assume the program using the library does not require the attacker to rely on another user performing an action to perform a successful attack.
Scope Unchanged We assume the impact of an attack is limited to the library and the program using it. Given the nature of this library it is unlikely it would be used in a way that impacts other components.
Confidentiality High A successful attack may allow an attacker to read all other data accessible to the library.
Integrity Low A successful attack may allow an attacker to modify some data accessible to the library.
Availability Low A successful attack may allow an attacker to create partial denial of service conditions.

28. Lenovo ThnkPwn Exploit (CVE-2016-5729)

Vulnerability

The SmmRuntime BIOS EFI Driver allows local administrators to execute arbitrary code with System Management Mode (SMM) privileges via unspecified vectors.

Attack

Attacker creates a buffer in memory containing exploit code to be executed in SMM context. Attacker then creates a structure with a pointer to the exploit code’s entry point and triggers an SMI passing a reference to that structure. The SMM driver then calls the exploit code via the supplied function pointer.

CVSS v2.0 Base Score: 6.8

Metric Value
Access Vector Local
Access Complexity Low
Authentication Single
Confidentiality Impact Complete
Integrity Impact Complete
Availability Impact Complete

CVSS v3.1 Base Score: 8.2

Metric Value Comments
Attack Vector Local The attacker must be able to execute code on the system.
Attack Complexity Low This attack leverages a failure to verify input parameters in the SmmRuntime driver and can be reproduced consistently with simple code.
Privileges Required High The attacker must be able to run kernel level (ring 0) code on the target system.
User Interaction None The vulnerability is built into the BIOS and is always available. There is no user configuration involved.
Scope Changed Exploiting the vulnerable component grants access to SMM resources that are otherwise protected by hardware and are not accessible from outside SMM. The vulnerable component is not intended to grant unlimited access to this mode of operation.
Confidentiality High Normally the contents of SMRAM are hidden by hardware from access by kernel level (ring 0) code. This attack allows full disclosure of the precise current contents of SMRAM.
Integrity High Normally the contents of SMRAM and some specific hardware registers are protected by hardware mechanisms. This exploit grants full access to both SMRAM and any hardware registers that have access restricted to SMM.
Availability High The attacker can completely control the entire system from SMM and deny access to the system by not returning from SMM.

29. Failure to Lock Flash on Resume from sleep (CVE-2015-2890)

Vulnerability

Some UEFI BIOS implementations failed to set Flash write protections such as the BIOS_CNTL locking on resume from the S3 suspend to RAM sleep state.

Attack

Attacker causes or waits until the system resumes from suspend, and then writes over the current BIOS image in Flash with a new BIOS image modified by the attacker.

CVSS v2.0 Base Score: 7.2

Metric Value
Access Vector Local
Access Complexity Low
Authentication None
Confidentiality Impact Complete
Integrity Impact Complete
Availability Impact Complete

CVSS v3.1 Base Score: 6.0

Metric Value Comments
Attack Vector Local The attacker must be able to execute code on the system.
Attack Complexity Low The attacker has unfettered access to the Flash part on which the BIOS is stored.
Privileges Required High The attacker must be able to run kernel level (ring 0) code on the target system, in order to access the Flash part.
User Interaction None Many affected systems may enter the S3 sleep state on their own in standard configurations after some time has passed without user activity.
Scope Unchanged There is one component impacted, and that component is responsible for enforcing its own security.
Confidentiality None The contents of the BIOS Flash part are not read protected and can be read regardless of this vulnerability.
Integrity High If the BIOS Flash part is not properly protected, the BIOS can be completely overwritten.
Availability High An attacker can permanently deny service by erasing or corrupting the BIOS and resetting the system.

30. Intel DCI Issue (CVE-2018-3652)

Vulnerability

Existing UEFI setting restrictions for DCI (Direct Connect Interface) in 5th and 6th generation Intel Xeon Processor E3 Family, Intel Xeon Scalable processors, and Intel Xeon Processor D Family allows a limited physical presence attacker to potentially access platform secrets via debug interfaces.

Attack

An attacker with physical access can attach a debug device to the DCI interface and directly interrogate and control the processor state starting from very early in the boot process.

CVSS v2.0 Base Score: 4.6

Metric Value
Access Vector Local
Access Complexity Low
Authentication None
Confidentiality Impact Partial
Integrity Impact Partial
Availability Impact Partial

CVSS v3.1 Base Score: 7.6

Metric Value Comments
Attack Vector Physical The attacker must have physical access to the DCI port in order to attach the debugging device.
Attack Complexity Low The debugging device is off the shelf hardware that can be purchased from Intel by anybody.
Privileges Required None The attacker has complete access to the state of the processor, directly bypassing all security protections.
User Interaction None Affected systems enable DCI support by default in the BIOS setup screen.
Scope Changed The attacker is granted full access to the state of the machine at a hardware level not normally available to users of the system. All software-based security mechanisms and many hardware-based security mechanisms are fully bypassed.
Confidentiality High The entire operational state of the target machine is fully exposed. Any secret that enters memory is exposed.
Integrity High The entire operational state of the target machine may be modified to any state permitted by hardware.
Availability High An attacker can permanently deny service by multiple means, including but not limited to replacing the operating system and modifying UEFI variables that would normally be inaccessible which govern the boot process.

31. Scripting Engine Memory Corruption Vulnerability (CVE-2019-0884)

Vulnerability

A remote code execution vulnerability exists in the way the scripting engine handles objects in memory in Microsoft browsers. The vulnerability could corrupt memory in such a way that an attacker could execute arbitrary code in the context of the current user. An attacker who successfully exploited the vulnerability could gain the same user rights as the current user. If the current user is logged on with administrative user rights, an attacker who successfully exploited the vulnerability could take control of an affected system. An attacker could then install programs; view, change, or delete data; or create new accounts with full user rights.

The security update addresses the vulnerability by modifying how the scripting engine handles objects in memory.

Attack

In a web-based attack scenario, an attacker could host a specially crafted website designed to exploit the vulnerability through a Microsoft browser and then convince a user to view the website. An attacker could also embed an ActiveX control marked "safe for initialization" in an application or Microsoft Office document that hosts the browser rendering engine. The attacker could also take advantage of compromised websites and websites that accept or host user-provided content or advertisements. These websites could contain specially crafted content that could exploit the vulnerability.

CVSS v2.0 Base Score: 7.6

Metric Value
Access Vector Network
Access Complexity High
Authentication None
Confidentiality Impact Complete
Integrity Impact Complete
Availability Impact Complete

CVSS v3.1 Base Score: Internet Explorer = 7.5; Edge = 4.2

Metric IE 11 Edge Comments
Attack Vector Network Network The victim must visit a malicious website that may exist outside the local network.
Attack Complexity High High The attacker can expect repeatable success.
Privileges Required None None The attacker does not need any permissions to perform this attack, the attacker lets the victim perform the action on the attacker's behalf.
User Interaction Required Required The victim must click a specially-crafted link provided by the attacker.
Scope Unchanged Unchanged The vulnerable component and impacted component are the same, which is operating system.
Confidentiality High Low The Internet Explorer sandbox runs at a higher integrity level than Edge and allows sandbox features to be disabled, granting access to local files. Edge restricts access to local resources that are generated when browsing (cookies, temp files, etc.).
Integrity High Low Internet Explorer could be configured to allow access to local files, which may include access to important system files. An attacker could overwrite these files. The Edge AppContainer restricts access to system files.
Availability High None Internet Explorer could be configured to allow access to local files, which may include access to important system files. An attacker could cause a system crash by overwriting these files. The Edge AppContainer restricts access to system files.